Here are two other questions I often get.
Q: How can we use stem cells for the treatment of Wolfram syndrome and Type 1 diabetes.
A: Stem cells can differentiate into specific cell types including insulin-producing cells, retinal cells, and brain cells. The most important function of stem cells, especially induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells), is their potential use as “cell-based therapies.” iPS cells are a type of stem cells derived from patients’ own skin cells and could be used to repair damaged tissues. For patients with Type 1 diabetes, iPS cells could be prompted to differentiate into insulin-producing cells and transplanted into the body. The body wouldn’t reject these new cells as they would with donated cells or tissues from other individuals (called immune rejection). For patients with Wolfram syndrome, iPS cells could be stimulated to differentiate into insulin-producing cells, eye cells, and brain cells and transplanted into the body. Insulin-producing cells could be transplanted under the skin. We need to find the best way to transplant eye cells and brain cells, and the research is ongoing to figure this out.
Q: iPS cell-derived insulin-producing cells may be attacked again by autoimmune cells in Type 1 diabetes. iPS cell-derived insulin-producing cells and eye cells may degenerate again in Wolfram syndrome. What is the solution?
A: This is a very important question. Before we transplant iPS cell-derived cells, we need to modify disease-causing gene structure in Type 1 diabetes and Wolfram syndrome. In Type 1 diabetes, we probably need to modify insulin gene structure. In Wolfram syndrome, we need to modify Wolfram gene structure. This can be accomplished by genome editing. The genome editing technology is a new type of gene therapy. Using an enzyme and artificially designed guide RNA, we can modify gene structure. We are actively working on this.
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